“Time is definitely the fire we burn in.” And though we might struggle to quench its unrelenting flame, scientists have attempt to divert its path by isolating small enclosures where time slows to some crawl. Within these chambers the frenetic Brownian dance becomes a chaperoned waltz, as temperatures approach absolute zero. The interior environment of Cryogenic storage Dewar is really a world apart, a reminder of your ultimate heat-death that has to befall our universe within the eons to come.
For those who seek to discover truths about the workings of your cell, holding back the floodgates of your energy is a concern of significant proportions. Scientists tend to be thinking about very specific cell properties that happen at critical junctions from the lifetime of a cell. Holding these processes at bay while their properties may be exploited is similar to the trouble of catching one’s shadow.
Cryogenic freezing of cells has been used as you means to fix the situation in the slow burn. By reducing the temperatures of samples towards the glass transition phase of -133°C, the temperature in which all metabolic activity involves a halt, scientists are able to seclude moments in time, returning repeatedly to look into that instant of all time.
Unsurprisingly, cryogenics has become a significant industry which enables customized products for up to every conceivable purpose. From small tabletop apparatus to industrial-scale liquifiers, the marketplace in cryogenics provides mechanical freezers, canisters, and dewars in every single size, shape, and configuration imaginable. With your a wide variety of products to select from expertise in which of them are most effective may elude the average consumer. To be able to provide a summary of the key producers of cryogenic laboratory supplies several manufacturers will be profiled in the following paragraphs.
Ultra-low lab freezers are among those things that most people never think of until they quit working. Built to run for many years without interruption in service, lab freezers are the quiet sentinels of your laboratory, keeping a vigilant watch over the researcher’s most prized possessions. Most scientists attempt to avoid the idea of what might happen if their freezer failed, or they attempt to erase the memory through the day whenever it did. A career’s amount of samples may be lost in one afternoon– many years of careful collecting and cataloging reduced to mere puddles on the ground. Even though this kind of scenario looms ominously in the periphery of each researcher’s consciousness, not every person is prepared during the day whenever it actually occurs. Manufacturers of ultra-low lab freezers have taken great pains to make sure that power failures and refrigerant leaks will never compromise one’s samples. They build machines that usually are meant to be forgotten.
MMR Technologies is the only company that uses the Kleemenko cooling cycle within its refrigerators. Even though the natural gas industry provides this technique for several years, MMR Technologies was the initial company to patent the technology and adapt it for very small, lightweight, and portable freezing systems.
The way the Kleemenko cycle works is the fact a combination of compressed gas and liquid is passed down a countercurrent exchanger and is permitted to expand by way of a capillary or throttling valve. Cooling occurs upon expansion, along with the cool gas passes back up the warmth exchanger, precooling the incoming high-pressure gas. One or more liquid-vapor separators might be incorporated from the cycle in order that the increase of the liquid could be used to precool the vapor (W.A. Little., Presented at ICEC17, Bournemouth, U.K.,July 14-17 1998)
The BIO 120 is actually a zero-maintenance, low-power-consumption Kleemenko refrigerator that is designed for storing frozen tissue, cell cultures, organs, and the body parts. The machine allows the scientist to warm and funky samples uniformly without shocking them, and because it has an inside power source it can be used to the transportation of samples from storage facility to check out laboratory. Robert Paugh, product manager for MMR Technologies, was insistent on the requirement for controlled temperature ramping.
“As being a user you would like to are aware of the minimum temperature and the way it gets there,” said Paugh. MMR Technologies’ enhanced control systems and printed thermal record of cooling makes certain that uniform temperatures have been maintained during the entire cooling process.
Kelvinator Scientific, which is a subsidiary of Frigidaire, provides freezer units for laboratories and pharmacies that are designed for biological samples at temperatures as a result of -86°C. At temperatures this low animal and plant viruses, bacteria, spores, and bacteriophages can be preserved for extended periods. Locking lids are given so that you can protect samples from accidental exposure to ambient temperatures. Adjustable shelving, pullout drawers, and drawer partition inserts are helpful for separating different experiments.
NuAire, Inc. credits much of its ultralow freezing capabilities to the heavy-gauge galvanized steel cabinets. The temperature-conducting quality of the material reduces stress on compressors allowing the units to run longer and colder than would otherwise be possible. Maintaining temperatures at -152°C the NuAire ultralow freezer can perform holding samples below the crystallization point.
In keeping with the Clean Air Act of 1990 for systems using HCFC/HFC refrigerants, NuAire also utilizes a special mixture of azeotropic gases which can be non-flammable and enable on-site recycling. Furthermore, a built-in timer cycles the low stage compressor every 24 hours, turning it off to ensure the capillary tubing will probably be cleared of ice formation.
So-Low Environmental Equipment Co. has a long tradition of producing ultralow freezers for laboratory applications. In fact, with forty years of experience under its belt, So-Low is one of the oldest manufacturers of ultralow temperature freezers in the commercial. Once the Montreal Protocol started the phase out from CFC refrigerants in 1987, So-Low was the first to work with Dupont Suva 95, the latest CFC-free refrigerant that runs cooler with less pressure than CFCs. Along with its investigation of environmentally friendly refrigerants, So-Low also has developed a cutting-edge compressor that is designed mainly for its ultralow freezers.
Forma Scientific offers both mechanical and liquid nitrogen storage systems for preserving samples at ultralow temperatures. The mechanical freezers preserve specimens as a result of -86°C, while Forma’s liquid nitrogen freezers store samples at -133°C. Unlike its competitors’ liquid nitrogen freezers, however, Forma provides square cross-section units instead of the normal cylindrical containers. Each of these cabinets is constructed of cold-rolled steel. Forma’s counterbalanced lids provide easy accessibility, an optional thermal data printer continuously documents all operational functions, as well as a storage system adjusts to support an array of tube sizes. Forma offers a patented double door unit that separates long-term from everyday storage.
Revco is probably the largest manufacturers of laboratory freezers with over fifty years of experience in the market. Revco’s Elite, Value, and Ultima mechanical freezers sustain temperatures from -10°C to as little as -120°C without CFC refrigerants and can be purchased in chest, upright, and tabletop models. Its sophisticated Ultima freezers offer automatic electronic systems that constantly adjust conditions for the internal and external environment, correcting for subtle fluctuations in ambient temperature, excessive loading with warm samples, and dirty filters. It also features a scrubbing cycle that removes vaporized lubricating oil from your evaporating coils.
Sanyo has been manufacturing laboratory and medical freezers for more than 2 decades, beginning with its manufacture of the initial -40°C chest freezer in 1974. Sanyo duplicated this achievement with the introduction of the initial -152°C ultralow temperature freezer in 1991 and further demonstrated its position by becoming the very first manufacturer to provide a complete selection of CFC-free medical freezers. Today, Sanyo offers among the largest selections of ultralow temperature lab freezers now available. Sanyo’s upright and chest freezers are equipped for utilize in preserving cells, bacteria, spores, pollen, sperm, protozoa, and blood components for academic and industrial research.
The word dewar, originally placed on double walled glass vacuum flasks, is currently applied to a wide array of insulated vessels designed for maintenance of samples in liquid nitrogen. Depending upon their size, dewars usually rest on to the floor or sit on tabletops where samples can be accessed. Due to quality of insulation materials, some dewars have maintained critical temperatures for as long as one year without being regenerated with liquid nitrogen. The standard thermal wall contains an aluminum or steel sandwich filled with polyurethane. The size and style and configuration of dewars vary to such an extent that numerous companies build custom dewars to buy. Many of these companies and their goods are reviewed inside the following section.
From Alaskan salmon eggs to embryos from Idaho’s chicken farms, MVE makes laboratory freezers for a wide variety of applications. Obviously, animal breeders are just a small number of its customers. Blood and cell storage along with organ shipment are an equally large element of MVE’s business with medical and pharmaceutical applications representing the fastest-growing section of the marketplace for the company’s products.
MVE was the very first company to develop biological freezers competent at maintaining a -190°C environment for the full year without refilling with nitrogen. Since that time MVE has released the entire collection of XLC series liquid and vapor-phase freezers. The XLC liquid nitrogen freezers are capable of handling as much as 36,000 vials at temperatures only -195.8°C. The vapor-phase freezers are fitted to cells that can be stored at -125°C but will become damaged or discolored at critical temperatures achieved by liquid nitrogen freezers. The vapor-phase freezers can also be useful for storing hazardous materials that may cross-communicate within a liquid medium, including contaminated-blood bags which are liable to break open.
Quantum Technology is really a worldwide manufacturer and supplier of laboratory freezers with offices in the usa and Germany. Its product line includes anything from compressors and temperature sensors to gas wells and vacuum shrouds.
In accordance with Sean Wolf, product manager for Quantum Technology, a great way his company has were able to remain competitive is simply by offering on-site service and warranty repair. Another major selling point of Quantum’s refrigeration systems is because they can be customized.
One among Quantum Technology’s most popular products is a helium recovery system. Although liquid helium is simply $4 or $5 per liter, in lots of countries outside The United States and Europe, the fee for purchasing helium is a concern of concern. That is one of the explanations why Quantum Technology makes an efficient two-stage and three-stage closed-cycle refrigerator when the helium is retained inside the system. The helium from this refrigerator is reliquified for use over and over.
Lab-Line Instruments, designer and manufacturer of dewars for scientific research and recently acquired subsidiary of Barnstead Thermolyne, supplies a Thermo-Flask collection of goods that include wide-mouth flasks, insulated Thermo-Cups, stainless steel Thermo-Flasks, and enameled steel Thermo-Flasks. Twenty-six different models can be found with capacities from 200 cc to 10 liters, and all these models is offered by using a 24-month warranty. Other special features of the Thermo-Flask line of products include vented lids to avoid pressure build-up, fold-down handles, and borosilicate inner vessels evacuated to provide coolant retention for samples held in liquid nitrogen or solid CO2.
Barnstead Thermolyne manufactures the Bio-Cane and Locator Plus cryogenic storage systems, that are distributed by several companies throughout the us. The Bio-Cane systems are available in five sizes and present features like super vacuum insulation, ampule cans, a polycarbonate lid, and color-coded canisters for inventory identification. The Locator Plus storage systems can be found in four sizes and also have capacities as high as 6,000 vials. Along with a number of the standard features found in the Bio-Cane, the Locator provides hanging racks with a gridded box design, audible and visual alarms that warn of low-level conditions, as well as an ultrasonic liquid level monitor that eliminates connection with liquid nitrogen and consequently reduces evaporation.
Pope Scientific makes a number of traditional dewar flasks in “cylindrical,” “low form shallow,” and “spherical” styles. All Pope dewars are made of borosilicate glass protected by a protective mesh, as well as every wide-mouth model includes a vented polyethylene stopper to lower evaporation. Wide-mouth dewars can also be jacketed in aluminum casing for more safety.
Pope Scientific’s narrow-mouth or “constricted-neck” dewars are designed for temporary storage or transfer applications with holding times in excess of 14 days. Most of these units come built with a small-evaporation stopper, a completely shielded evacuation tip, a weighted base, and protective mesh. Options for these instruments include fiberglass caddies for carrying or decanting.
Taylor-Wharton International definitely makes the K Series, XT (Extended Time), HC (High Capacity), and RS (Rack System) dewars which allow the researcher to save vast amounts of semen, embryos, and biological samples at liquid-nitrogen temperatures. Each one of these units is complemented by its very own inventory control system, which is designed to maximize the quantity of vials that may be safely arranged in to a canister-type storage device. By either immersing samples in liquid nitrogen or suspending them in nitrogen vapor, vials could be maintained at temperatures of -196° C.
Cryogenic Tubes are one of the mostly used and least considered implements inside the researcher’s tool box. Bags of tubes are stuffed into corners and forgotten until they mysteriously run out 1 day. Then its time to visit shopping. Making decisions about buying cryogenic tubes is often guided by three primary issues, the first that concerns the issue of whether they are externally or internally threaded. Advocates of externally threaded vials propose that material is trapped in the threads of internally threaded vials, while proponents from the internally threaded sort reason that externally threaded vials are more easily contaminated by accidental contact. Although research has been conducted in an attempt to confirm or refute these claims, these have not been conclusive, and also the debate proceeds.
One more consideration that comes into mind when buying cryogenic tubes will be the material from which these are constructed. While plastic vials are, perhaps, more durable than glass, they take more time to warm which might negatively change the viability of some cells. Some plastic tubes can be contaminated with releasing fluids during the molding process. However, releasing fluids can be removed together with the good care, and a few brands like Axygen are embracing new polished molds that do not require the use of releasing fluids. Glass, on the flip side, warms rapidly but can also be at the mercy of fracture due to microchannels which may form from the glass, causing leakage of sample contents, and even violent explosions. Plastic vials are also prone to nitrogen penetration but the chance of explosion is not really as great.
Gasketing has been a problem of some contention in this industry. Many cryovials include a washer that keeps the inner pressure of your vial from expelling the tube’s contents after it is warmed to ambient conditions. The rapid expansion of gas within the tube is enough to force cells and fluid from the lids of many non-gasketed cryotubes. Silicon is normally preferred since the best material for insulating caps against leakage. Although rubber is additionally used, it comes with a tendency to get rid of its elasticity when dropped to freezing temperatures, a problem that was demonstrated if the “O” rings about the space shuttle Challenger failed.
Simport Plastics, headquartered in Quebec, supplies a large choice of cryotubes and microcentrifuge tubes that can be used at temperatures as little as -190°C. Designed for handling biological samples under freezing conditions for prolonged periods, its Cryovials™ come equipped with attached leak proof caps that contain a dual lip as well as a silicon washer. An exclusive ridge on each cap makes handling easier, contributing to one-hand aseptic technique, and color-coded cap inserts in combination with white marking areas make each vial easily identifiable.
Evergreen Scientific manufactures the CryoSure® brand of vials for storing cell cultures, blood/serum specimens, sperm, as well as other biological fluids at vapor-phase liquid nitrogen temperatures (-195°C). CryoSure vials can be found in 1. ml, 1.5 ml, and three.5 ml sizes and are available in round-bottom and freestanding configurations.
Evergreen also provides a range of microcentrifuge tubes that range in capacities from 250 µ l to 2. ml. Included in this are polypropylene tubes, which can be combined with solvents, alcohols, chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons, and ketones. These tubes are sterilized using gamma radiation and they are pressure tested inside a vacuum chamber to ensure the reliability of its double-sealing screw caps.
Evergreen has recently created a new microcentrifuge tube, in cooperation with Washington University Lipid Research Center, to be used in lipid fractionation studies. This is a 1.5 ml polystyrene tube with an 11 mm high-density polyethylene cap. Among the outstanding options that come with this tube is that it is totally transparent.
Nalgene® and Nunc™ cryogenic vials include an array of externally and internally threaded vials from 1. to 5. ml capacities which can be silicone gasketed and guaranteed to use in a centrifuge. The Nalgene 5000 series vials feature graduations and are certified to become sterile, noncytotoxic and nonpyrogenic, as the System 100 vials are certain to be leakproof inside a microcentrifuge approximately 8,000 g and through shipment and transport. However, the corporation warns that cryotubes improperly sealed in liquid phase may lead to an explosion or biohazard release. Nalgene and Nunc have given CryoFlex Tubing to avert this contingency.
Wheaton Science Products makes tubes and flasks for pretty much every eventuality. From serum bottles to mobile phase reservoirs, it offers developed a substantial catalog of products for handling liquid samples. Wheaton’s Cryules® are available in both plastic and glass. The glass Cryule is made from Wheaton-33° low extractable glass which can be hermetically sealed. They are most suitable to the preservation of biological materials with liquid nitrogen at low temperatures. Wheaton’s plastic Cryules are autoclavable and, like each of the glass Cryules, can withstand temperatures between -196°C and 121°C. Wheaton Vacules are vials that happen to be constructed for lyophilization and freeze-drying. Their heavy-wall construction causes them to be exceptionally durable, and they are often flame sealed or stored by using a wide range of stoppers and caps.
Corning Incorporated Science Products Division makes a number of polypropylene vials that are designed for use at temperatures to -196°C. These come provided with a variety of features including color-coded caps, silicon and rubber washers for secure sealing of contents, and simple-to-read graduations for partial volumes. Self-standing and locking features are offered with selected styles. Most of Corning’s vials are supplied sterile and certified as nonpyrogenic.
Axygen Scientific Inc. makes microcentrifuge and screw-cap tubes for storing samples at subfreezing temperatures which can be constructed with 99.9 percent pure polypropylene without mineral fillers or heavy metals. Foreign substances are added limited to the request in the customer, and Axygen’s colorants contain no metallic ions including iron, chromium, or nickel which can be typical constituents of dyes. Each one of the company’s vials is designed to snap closed inside a locked position for centrifugation, and special piercing ports have the insertion of syringes easier for collecting samples. Axygen’s “O” ring closure system features a patent-pending alignment system that guarantees that this microtube is aligned from the centrifuge rotor to become re-spun without disturbing the pelletized sediment.
Sarstedt Inc. has an extensive catalog of microcentrifuge tubes that happen to be appropriate for both freezing at ultralow temperatures and centrifugation that could come in a selection of sizes, shapes, and colors. The consumer has the option of selecting from a variety of externally threaded microtubes with attached or enclosed screw caps which might be colored for identification. All Sarstedt’s tubes are sterile, and also the polypropylene material through which they can be constructed allows them to endure subfreezing temperatures and also temperatures and pressures in a autoclave. One of many areas that Sarstedt has paid particular focus to in developing its type of products is the necessity for cryogenic vials which contain reaction buffers and enzymes for PCR applications.
Stockwell Scientific manufacturers CRYO-LOK® Cryogenic Vials and screw- cap microcentrifuge tubes for storage and transport at ultralow temperatures. These range in capacity from .5 ml to 3.5 ml and can be bought in conical and skirted configurations. Stockwell’s microcentrifuge tubes could be exposed to a centrifugal force of 20,000 g and each one of its O-ring sealed tubes continues to be sterilized.
Storage inventory systems really are a critical a part of any long term protocol for cryogenic preservation. Once cryogenic vials are stored at subfreezing temperatures they might undergo changes which make them difficult to keep trace. Labels can become brittle, breaking and separating from vials, and improperly stored tubes can be dropped into liquid nitrogen making retrieval difficult and costly. One of the most popular strategies for containing samples is the canister and cane. Employing this technique, a series of vials are enclosed within a long aluminum shaft which is submerged within liquid nitrogen. The canes can be simply manipulated for small sample volumes and protect vials from damage that may occur from bumping or agitation. For greater storage capacities, however, the drawer method is usually preferred. Although drawer systems usually expose more samples to warming during exchange, the accessibility of your system reduces exposure a chance to ambient temperatures causing less evaporation in the freezer, as well as lessens the researcher’s exposure to potentially harmful cryogens.
Forma Scientific makes rack inventory systems for liquid-phase and vapor-phase storage. These racks are designed to optimize the level of space for storage afforded by Forma’s liquid nitrogen containers. The conventional inventory configuration is really a cardboard or steel construction arranged into arrowhead or square designs. Vertical inventory systems enable the user to arrange as many as 82 racks at maximum density.
TetraLink International focuses on making storage boxes and rack systems for cryogenic storage. Made for the widest possible applicability, its freezer storage systems can be found in a variety of sizes, shapes, and colours to match just about any freezer. Clear lids allow contents being viewed without opening the containers, and they could be adjusted in a few models to support tubes of varying heights. Round holes provide spacing with clearance for snap-seal and safe-lock caps. TetraLink’s Racksys storage system uses sliding drawers that have storage racks for holding as many as 267 microtubes. These drawers can be installed in virtually any upright freezer or refrigerator.
Nalgene and Nunc storage systems comprise a series of plastic or chipboard containers for microcentrifuge tubes and glass vials. These are generally keyed to avoid misalignment and supply temperature resistance from -196°C to 121°C.
Nalgene® CryoBox Racks provide stainless-steel retainer systems appropriate for all Nalgene and Nunc storage boxes. They feature vertical and horizontal storage for boxes that maintain each box separately for convenient retrieval.
National Labnet provides freezer racks and storage boxes for the increasing variety of sample containers. As high-throughput experiments require greater reserves of reagents, Cryogenic Movable tank has responded with boxes and racks that are constructed for numerous examples of both well plates and cryovials. They also have introduced boxes with telescoping lids so that you can satisfy requirements for single box containers with vials of differing sizes.
Custom Biogenic Systems is among the largest manufacturers of rack systems for cryogenic storage containers. In fact, many of its items are sold as standard accessories with several of the major producers of laboratory freezers. Its pie-shaped racks are constructed from steel and include a selection of cardboard, aluminum, or stainless boxes with 1/2 inch or 5/8″ cell dividers. These systems can be purchased as individual units or as complete racks for usage in vapor- phase or liquid-phase storage.
Most likely, the cryogenic products one buys today will be the same ones that will be used for years. An order made today may work for 10 years. In place, researchers buying Cryogenic Centrifugal Pump are not only buying products for their own reasons, they may be buying with regard to their successors. The customer should think about what might 46dexkpky over the course of years if their samples become degraded or contaminated because of improper storage. A bit money which had been saved at first by scrimping on vials or freezers may not appear to be the best downside when valuable samples are lost. Inspite of the safeguards built-in to a large number of devices many product managers recommend making regular maintenance on the products a high priority. Appointing a lasting position that is responsible for the cryogenic safety in the laboratory’s biological collection is probably the best ways to assure the integrity of the samples.